Trenchless laying of connection cable directly to ground using vibration cable-laying machine
The main, and most economical method of mechanized construction of main communication lines (including optical fiber) - are laying the connection cable directly to ground using vibration cable-laying machine. The company "BUDYVELNYK-3" are used US vibration cable-laying machines VERMEER RENEGAT P185 and CVG-2 of Russian production. On straight grounds (soils 1-3 category) and the absence of significant intersections of underground utilities, these machines provide the most high-speed of laying - up to 10 km per shift to a depth of 1.8 m. Along with the cable at a depth of 30 ... 40 cm is laid alarm tape, and on the surface of the track (every 200-300m, on turns and crossings, etc.) are installed special columns with warning inscriptions and details of the owner of communication lines. Modern cable-laying machines and specially designed knives used by the company "BUDYVELNYK-3", reduce dynamic loads on the cable and do not violate its mechanical parameters when laying into the ground. Mechanized column for laying communication cable amplified auxiliary equipment that performs additional excavation work before, during and after laying the cable. With this method you can run more than one cable in one pass. The two columns of connection cable laying of company "BUDYVELNYK-3" make it possible to build more than 1,000 km of lines per year.
Laying cable communications in a protective plastic tube
LLC "BUDYVELNYK-3" performs a polyethylene pipe laying in the ground, followed by blowing in her connection cable by stream of compressed air. For this purpose originally polyethylene tube diameter of 32, 40, 50 and 63 mm and wall thickness of 3 ... 5 mm are layed in the soil to a depth of 1.8 m using vibration cable-laying machine. After laying the construction length of the tube are connected with special threaded couplings and checked for integrity and tightness. Feed cables in the tube is performed by the flow of compressed air using a special machine and compressor. LLC "BUDYVELNYK-3" for this type of work using modern pneumatic machines that provide blown of cables with speed of 80m/min (including fiber optic and metal cables) that have diameter in the range of 9 to 32 mm, and the weight does not exceed 1.2 kg/m. There is no special requirements on the mechanical stability of the cables as they move through a tube by evenly clutch of compressed air with the surface of the cable along its entire length. It uses compressors that delivers air under pressure of 10-12 bar at a speed of 10-12 m3/min. So with the help of three simultaneously working pneumatic machines, which are located at a distance of 2 km from each other, is blown about 6-8 km of connection cable per shift.
Laying cable in plastic tube increases the service life communication lines, and the possibility of rapid modernization. This way you can simultaneously run the main and reserve tube. This makes it possible to quickly replace the existing cable on new, thus increasing the amount of fibers in the link. And backup pipeline in the future can be used for laying additional cable connection.
Construction of cable transitions by HDD method under natural and artificial obstacles
Communications cable Laying in areas of intersection of the roads, railways, rivers, lakes, existing underground utilities performed most of the trenchless method of horizontal directional drilling (HDD). For this purpose the company "BUDYVELNYK-3" use HDD equipment Vermeer Navigator. With these units under the obstacles in drilling horizontal wells is performed, followed by tightening it one or more polyethylene pipes, which is laid cable lines. This excludes the possibility of damage to existing underground utilities (pipelines, power cables, etc.) because the drilling process is monitored in real time by special location systems that make it possible to get around any underground utilities at a safe distance. Depending on the complexity and length of artificial or natural obstacles are used one of four HDD units Vermeer Navigator, which are capable to perform underground cable passages length from 40 to 1200 m at a depth of 30m.
Construction of cable transitions under natural and artificial obstacles by HDD method does not harm the environment, does not violate the protected area landscapes and settlements, does not change normally functioning road and rail transport, does not damage underground utilities and others.
Laying cable communications in cable sewage of human settlements
In the city communication cable is laid mainly in the cable sewage system. It uses the existing infrastructure of cable ductwork or built new. Before laying cable wells are inspected and equipped, cable sanitations are checked and repaired. Laying cables in the cable sewage is carried out mainly by tightening manually or via cable cars, barrels with manual or electric drive, which are equipped with special controling tools of traction. This way you can lay pieces of cable length of 2000 m or more, herewith control minimum radius bending fiber-optic cable and the permissible traction, which are standardized for the particular type of cable connection.
Laying cable communications in the cable sewage system ensure its protection in the city, and the possibility of further development of lines.
Laying cable communications in trenches using excavators and trenchers
In areas of frozen and stony soils (categories 4-6), with numerous crossings of existing underground utilities or other obstacles cable laying are performed in the trenches. To perform this type of work of the mechanized columns of laying cable must include a special auxiliary earthmoving machinery, chain trenchers PZM excavators «EDER» and «ATLAS», soil weeders PGV-1 and other mechanisms. Before the cable laying difficult soil is previously loosen by hydraulic tractors PGV-1, equipped with "fangs" providing loosening thickness up to 50 mm and a depth of 1.5 m. Sometimes have to run multiple passes and additionally enhance cable-laying machine by additional traction unit. Development of trenches in difficult soils is carried out by chain trenchers. Before laying the cable on the bottom of the trench is made a special cushion of sand. Excavators involved for various types of ancillary and related work, particularly during trenching of existing underground utilities, to develop foundation areas for clutches, to recess the knife of cable-laying machine and others. Trenches and foundation pits are filled up with specially prepared soil and are carefully compressed.
Laying of cable connection (or pipeline) by trench method improves the quality and lifetime of the communication lines, because when laying the cable in a trench there is no mechanical impact, and the entire length of the cable in trench additionally protected with a cushion of sand.
Hooking communication cable on the piers of power lines
Communication cable is suspended on existing piers air lines of communication and power lines (including high-voltage transmission lines). It is used a specially designed cable. In particular for building local networks cable with a rope is used. At the piers are installed brackets for mounting tension and supporting clips, which fixed cable connection rope. If the communication cables have no special carriers then it is mounted to the external carrier elements (cable, wires) in increments of 50-60 cm. For this purpose zinced yokes or yokes with resistant plastic for outer solar impact are used. For hanging fiber optic cables on the piers of high voltage transmission lines with voltage of 110 kV and higher dielectric cable of small diameter are applied, which is spooled through special mechanisms with certain step on phase or lightning guard wire. For hanging on the piers of transmission lines are also used fiber-optic cable, arranged in ground wire. This cable is suspended instead dismantled ground wire, using typical fittings its mounting and grounding.
Hooking of the connection cable is performed in the vast majority within dense urban areas or in areas where underground laying is complicated with various circumstances (for example, extremely large spans of power transmission lines, on bridges when passing through water obstacles, etc.).
Installation and measurement of communication cables (fiber optic and copper ones)
Construction and installation of unattended regenerative posts (URP)
An integral part of any main or zone cable lines are linear structures - unattended regenerative posts (URP). At URP is located telecom equipment, backup power and etc. LLC "BUDYVELNYK-3" performs the full range of design, construction and installation works on the URP installation. URP location is selected based on the account of the length of the regeneration area and customer requirements. Typically, CHP are located in settlements in premises of existing telecommunications companies as well as outside the city - in a protected area in the entire metal container (area up to 12m2). At LLC "BUDYVELNYK-3" is formed a special team for the construction and installation of underground and surface structures of URP (URP connection to the power supply, equips with Automatic entry reserve shield, grounding, air conditioning, lighting systems, fire and security systems and others. ).
Protection of cable lines from dangerous influences
Typically main communication cables containing metallic elements which are used for service of communication lines during operation. Cables with metal elements can be exposed to dangerous lightning influence and guidance of electromotive force (EMF) in metal cable elements under the imact of external electromagnetic influences of high voltage power lines, electrified railways, etc. To protect the lines from dangerous influences LLC "BUDYVELNYK-3" performs:
– laying down cable (optical cable) with one or more lightning protection wires;
– grounding of cable the metal elements through control and measuring posts;
– arrangement of the linear structure deep grounding of copper (zinced) electrodes to a depth of 30 m;
– laying optical cable in protective plastic tubes.
Preparation of project documents
At the final stage of construction of cable lines executive documentation are prepared, which includes working drawings, adjusted according to actual work performed; route referencing to permanently placed local objects, GPS coordinates of coupling accommodations; damping measurement protocols of regeneration areas and all lines of communication; information about laying construction lengths of cable; acts of the hidden works; factory passports for building length and others. The executive documentation in multiple copies is transmitted to the customer and subsequently is used for certification and maintenance of lines.
Among the services the company also presented the construction and reconstruction of underground communications, works by horizontal directional drilling and other related services.